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UNIDO ICHET: Umutların yıkılışı : - Elektrik Dergisi

 
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Son birkaç yıl içinde büyük hayaller kurmuştuk. Sanayide, elektronikte, iletişimde kaçırdığımız trenleri bu kez yakaladık diye seviniyorduk. Yüz yılın enerjisi diye adlandı rılan hidrojenle ilgili araştırma-geliştirme çalışmalarında start verilirken Türkiye de yarışın başında çıkışa hazırdı. Yarışmadaki performansımızda bize önemli avantaj sağlayacak, bizi bir adım öne geçirecek bir başarıyı da kazanmıştık. Birleşmiş Millletlere bağlı UNIDO-ICHET Uluslararası Hidrojen Enerjisi Teknolojileri Merkezi’nin Türkiye’de kurulması da gerçekleştirilmişti.
Merkez’in kurulması öncesindeki, dergimizin başından beri içinde bulunduğu sü- reci hatırlayalım; dünyada adı hidrojen enerjisiyle birlikte anılan, Tokyo’dan Paris’e uluslararası hidrojen enerjisi kongrelerinin başkanı, hidrojenle ilgili ilk uluslararası derginin kurucusu ve başyazarı Miami Üniversite’si Yenilenebilir Enerji Enstitüsü Di rektörü
Prof. Dr. Nejat Veziroğlu

Elimsan Şirketler Grubu’

nun davetlisi olarak konfe- rans vermek üzere Türkiye’ye gelmiş ve dergi olarak kendisi ile ilk röportaj randevusunu almış ve yaptığımız özel röportajı sayfalarımızda yayımlamıştık. Veziroğlu, bu ilk röportajda açıkladıklarını verdiği çeşitli konferanslarda defalarca tekrarladı. Bu arada Türkiye’de ilki İstanbul’da ikincisi Ankara’da olmak üzere Uluslararası Hidrojen Enerjisi Kongreleri toplandı. Kongrelerde Türkiye’den ve çeşitli ülkelerden gelen bilim insanları bildiriler sundular.
Veziroğlu, bir yandan Ankara’da hükümet kapılarını aşındırdı, bir yandan da BM düzeyindeki girişimleri ile Uluslararası Hidrojen Enerjisi Teknolojileri Merkezi’nin Türkiye’de kurulması için karar çıkmasını sağladı. Sonunda 21 Ekim 2003′te Viyana’da TC Hükümeti ile BM Sınai Kalkınma Örgütü (UNIDO) arasında ICHET’in kuruluş anlaşması imzalandı.
Dünya enerji çevrelerinde büyük önem verildiği belirtilen ICHET’in kuruluşunun ar- dından, organizasyona mekan bulunması çalışmaları yapıldı. Bulunan araziler ilgili bakanlıklara önerildi. Bir dizi bürokratik engeller aşılarak ICHET’e bir alan bulundu.
Bu arada hidrojen enerjisine yönelik çalışmalar bir yandan Avrupa Birliği destek programları çerçevesinde ünivesitelerde yürütülürken özel sektörde de, yakın dönemde para kazanma beklentisi olmamasına rağmen çalışmalar başlamıştı.

Örneğin, EAE Elektrik firmasının enerji biriminde çalışmalar yapılmakta, yönetim kurulu başkanı Yusuf H. Kaya dergimizde yayımlanan röportajında hidrojene yaptıkları yatırımı ”Türkiye’nin geleceğine yatırım” olarak nitelerken,

Elimsan öğrencilerin sempatisini kazanmak üzere hidrojen enerjili demo cihazlarını okullara dağıtmaya başlamıştı. Kimi belediyeler ise hidrojenle çalışan araçları hizmete alma girişimlerinde bulunuyorlardı.
UNIDO ICHET dar kadrosuyla çalışmalarına başladı. Hidrojen enerjisi konusunda Türkiye’yi lider ülke konumuna taşımak için birçok sanayi kuruluşu ile ortak çalışmalar yapmaya, farklı ülkelerde pilot bölgelerde projeler geliştirmeye başladı. ICHET’in proje bazında destek verdiği, uygulamaları koordine ettiği çalışmalar arasında Bozcaada’da rüzgar enerjisinden yararlanılarak üretilecek hidrojenden ada halkının enerji ihtiyacını karşılamak amaçlanıyordu. Ayrıca Çin’de hidroelektrikten, Libya’da güneş enerjisinden ve Arjantin’de rüzgar enerjisinden hidrojen üretimi ve yine Tükrkiye’de Bozcaada’da rüzgar enerjisinden hidrojen üretimi ile İstanbul’da hidrojen yakıtlı otobüslerin işletilmesi ICHET’in projeleri arasında yer almakta idi.
Gündemindeki konular arasında TÜBİTAK-MAM AB 6. ÇP HY-PROSTORE Projesi, yakıt pili araştırmaları, modern yakıt pilleri çerçeve projesi, doğrudan sodyum borhidrürlü yakıt pili (DSBHYP) üretimi entegrasyonu bulunan ICHET, hidrojenin üretimi, depolanması çalışmalarını da sürekli hedef olarak görüyordu.
Yüzyılın enerjisi olarak nitelenen hidrojen için karşı görüşü savunanlar da vardı. Bu kesime göre hidrojenin üretimi var olan birincil enerji kaynaklarından elde edilen elektrik enerjisi kullanılarak yapılıyordu. Bu ise hidrojen enerjisinin pahalı bir enerji türü olduğu anlamına geliyordu.
Rüzgar, güneş gibi birincil enerji kaynaklarından üretilen elektriğin depolanama- ması buna karşılık hidrojenin depolama olanağını sağlaması belirli bir alanda hidrojen enerjisinin vazgeçilmezliğini kanıtlıyordu. Dolayısıyla hidrojen, elektrik kullanılarak üre- tilmesi nedeniyle pahalı ama depolanma özelliği nedeniyle de avantajlı bir enerji türü idi.

 Bu tartışmalara

UNIDO ICHET İdari Direktörü

Dr. A. J. Wetherilt imzalı

17.12.2012 tarihli bir yazı son noktayı koyDU

Yazıda

“UNIDO,

TC Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı ile yaptığı

görüşme sonucu

31 Aralık 2012 tarihinde

**ICHET’in kapatılacağı hususunda bilgilendirilmiştir”

deniliyordu.


Böylece büyük umutlarla kurulan ICHET, kendisinden beklenen önemli
çalışmaları tamamlayamadan ve Türkiye için vaat ettiği büyük ufukları gerçekleştiremeden yok edilmiş oldu.
Ersin KAYA
(Genel Yayın Yönetmeni)




NELERİ KAYBETTİK
3 LİNKE TIKLA


 
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE
FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
UNIDO-ICHET, June 2011. Second edition.
7 years of hydrogen energy
>> Contents >>
Foreword: “Shaping a vision”
................................................................................................................................
10-11
Towards renewable hydrogen
...............................................................................................................................
12-13
The birth and role of ICHET
..................................................................................................................................
14-15
Spotlight on: ICHET donors
..............................................................................................................................
16-17
Projects
..............................................................................................................................................................
18-41
Fuel cell powered forklifts
............................................................................................................................
20-21
Fuel cell UPS installations
............................................................................................................................
22-23
Hydrogen three wheeled vehicles
................................................................................................................
24-25
Hydrogen island projects
.............................................................................................................................
26-29
The Ecocaravan
..........................................................................................................................................
30-31
Spotlight on: the Ecocaravan Tour
.........................................................................................................
32-33
The Golden Horn hydrogen ecosystem
.......................................................................................................
34-41
The fuelling station
..................................................................................................................................
36
The hybrid bus
.......................................................................................................................................
37
Hydrogen boats
.................................................................................................................................
38-39
Applied R&D
.......................................................................................................................................................
42-49
Fuel cell production in Turkey
......................................................................................................................
44-45
SOFC based cogeneration
..........................................................................................................................
46-47
Hythane and hydrogen engine production
...................................................................................................
48-49
Support
...............................................................................................................................................................
50-57
Funding
.......................................................................................................................................................
52-53
Training and dissemination
..........................................................................................................................
54-55
Laboratories
................................................................................................................................................
56-57
Spotlight on: ICHET laboratories
.....................................................................................................................
58-59
Corporate information
......................................................................................................................................
60-67
Human resources
........................................................................................................................................
62-63
Budget evolution
.........................................................................................................................................
64-65
Partnerships
................................................................................................................................................
66-67
Closing words: “The hydrogen challenge”
.............................................................................................................
70-73
Acknowledgement
.....................................................................................................................................................
79
9
>>
Our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture
the human species if the exploitation and consumption
of fossil fuel sources continues at its current rate.
Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
ICHET Managing Director
>> Foreword >>
11
>>
10
>>
Shaping a vision
The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET) is a project of the
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) founded in Istanbul in 2004
and supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. Today, at ICHET,
our engineers and scientists help implement a variety of hydrogen and hydrogen-inclusive
projects with universities, R&D institutes and other partners in the public and private sector,
with special emphasis on the latter for private sector involvement is a must in order to market
hydrogen technology products and achieve their industrialization. An endeavour reflecting
7
years of operation on the hydrogen energy front, this book is an opportunity to sit and look
back at our achievements in order to better gauge what is still ahead. More than a compila
-
tion of corporate statistics, demonstration projects and R&D programmes, it documents a
coherent vision supplemented by real-life implementations that are laying the foundations of
the first stages of a hydrogen inclusive economy.
UNIDO-ICHET Managing Director Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
Because our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture the human spe
-
cies if the exploitation and consumption of fossil fuel sources continues
at its current rate, the gradual switch to clean energy resources has be
-
come a necessity. With an energy yield per weight unit triple that of fossil
fuels, hydrogen is the ideal energy carrier and storage medium and can
rightfully boast its zero carbon footprint when produced from renewable
resources.
Burnt in internal combustion engines, hydrogen can be converted into
thermal and kinetic energy. More importantly, it can also be turned directly into electricity
within fuel cells, those amazing electro-chemical devices that combine hydrogen with ambi
-
ent oxygen to produce electricity through a completely noise free process which releases
no more than pure water as a combustion product. Be it with internal combustion engines
or fuel cells, hydrogen applications can cover a wide range of needs, from transportation to
stationary systems through residential usage.
13
>>
Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to be the key technologies that will facilitate the
transition to a low carbon energy future in a similar way that oil and the internal combustion
engine displaced coal and the steam engine. Although hydrogen can be produced from
numerous primary energy sources, it is its production from renewables that renders it a
sustainable energy carrier. Along with biofuels, synthetic fuels and electricity, hydrogen is
foreseen to be one of the future energy carriers in transport and stationary applications. The
United States, the European Union, Canada and Japan have been investing heavily in the
development of hydrogen production, storage and use technologies including fuel cells, with
hydrogen playing a prominent role in their long term energy scenarios. Until recently how
-
ever, such efforts have been rare in the developing world, risking the opening of yet another
technology divide.
Towards renewable hydrogen
>> Introduction >>
Primary sources
Wind, sun and
biomass are some of
the renewable
primary energy
sources that could
be used in the
frame of a hydrogen
inclusive economy..
15
>>
14
>>
On 18
th
March 1974, a group of scientists and engineers, later to be known as the Hydrogen Romantics,
met at the “The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy” (THEME) conference and proposed the Hydrogen
Economy or Hydrogen Energy System as part of the solution addressing the interrelated global problems
of the depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental damage caused by their utilization. UNIDO, rec
-
ognizing the potential of hydrogen energy to better economic and environmental conditions, proposed
the establishment of an International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies and commissioned a
report on this issue to one of these Hydrogen Romantics: Prof. Nejat Veziroglu. This Centre was to pro
-
mote the conversion to a hydrogen inclusive economy by encouraging, coordinating and speeding-up
hydrogen energy related activities in the developing world. Candidate sites for the location of the Centre
were evaluated on the basis that they should be situated between the developed and developing coun
-
tries, be easily reachable and benefit from the support of an industrial nation. The city of Istanbul in
Turkey, located between the two continents of Europe and Asia and close to a third, Africa, fulfilled all
these requirements. As a result of discussions and negotiations, Turkish Government agreed to spon
-
sor and host this Centre and to commit $40M of initial funding. The Trust Fund Agreement establishing
the Centre was signed on 21
st
October 2003 by Director General of UNIDO, H. E. Carlos Magarinos,
and the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey, Dr. M. Hilmi Guler. Ratification of the
treaty, soon followed paving the way for the centre’s commencement with Dr. Veziroglu as its founding
director. When ICHET started operation
on 19
th
May 2004, some sixteen years
of behind-the-scenes lobbying, negotia
-
tion and diplomacy had finally come to
fruition. Dr. Veziroglu retired on April 31
st
2007, leaving Dr. Engin Türe in charge for
an interim period. Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
was then appointed Managing Director
of the Centre on 1
st
February 2008. The
vast majority of ICHET projects have
been completed under his direction.
Economic development
Since the establishment of its full hu
-
man resource and laboratory structure
in 2009, ICHET has been overtly active on all fronts of the hydrogen energy arena through its support
to R&D and by implementing demonstration projects. More than ever its role is not only to support,
demonstrate and promote viable hydrogen energy technologies with the aims of enhancing future eco
-
nomic development, particularly in emerging countries, but also to prevent the widening of the energy
and technology gap while skipping over the fossil fuel phase.
The birth and role of ICHET
>> Introduction >>
Dr. Hilmi Güler (left) and Mr. Carlos Magarinos (right) signing the ICHET Trust Fund Agreement
on 21
st
October 2003.
17
>>
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources or MENR (Turkish: Enerji ve
Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlıgı) is the government ministry office of the Republic
of Turkey responsible for energy and natural resources related affairs in
Turkey.cIts mission is to reduce Turkey’s external energy dependencies and
contribute to national welfare through efficient, effective, safe, timely and
environmentally friendly use of energy and natural resource.
Between 1990 and 2008 in Turkey, annual average rate of increase in primary energy demand was realized as 4,3
%.
Turkey has had the highest rate of energy demand increase of any other OECD countries over the past 10 years.
Similarly, since 2000, Turkey has been the second largest economy after China for having the highest rate of in
-
crease in electricity and gas demand. Projections show that this trend will continue in the medium run. According to
the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yıldız, in order to address this demand increase while making a
rational use of natural resources, “it is of great importance to [...] diversify energy production using new technologies
and increase the efficiency of the existing technologies, and implement policies and strategies which
intend to use alternative energy sources”.
>> Spotlight on: ICHET donors >>
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
is a specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in
Vienna, Austria. Its mandate is to promote and accelerate sustain
-
able industrial development in developing countries and economies
in transition, and work towards improving living conditions in the
world’s poorest countries by drawing on its combined global re
-
sources and expertise. In recent years, UNIDO has assumed an
enhanced role in the global development agenda by focusing its
activities on poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environ
-
mental sustainability. Energy is a prerequisite for poverty reduction.
Still, fundamental changes in the way societies produce and con
-
sume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development.
UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consump
-
tion and production. As a leading provider of services for improved
industrial energy efficiency and sustainability, UNIDO assists
developing countries and transition economies in imple
-
menting multilateral environmental agreements and
in simultaneously reaching their economic
and environmental goals.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey
UNIDO Director General
Kandeh Yumkella.
Turkish Minister of Energy and
Natural Resources Taner Yıldız.
17
>>
Courtesy of MENR
Courtesy of UNIDO
Caption
headline
Torporrunt. Ducil
invero de porenis
ma voluptam aut
que nonessuntis
doluptate
nonsequidis
soluptatus, opta
dipsust, cusae
natecte sanditisit
eos vollia sam venihit
aturiscient.
19
>>
Hydrogen technologies already exist. ICHET is playing a crucial
role in promoting them and ensuring that hydrogen finds its
place in the UN energy vision, strategy and implementation
plans. This promotion is best achieved through demonstrations
of viable technologies with the aim not only of drawing attention
but also to gain experience, identify areas for improvement and
solve the remaining engineering and logistical problems.
Fuel cell
based forklifts
p.20-21
Implementing
hydrogen islands
p.26-29
Uninterruptible
power systems
p.22-23
The Ecocaravan
hits the road
p.30-33
Autorickshaws
in New-Delhi
p.24-25
Around the
Golden Horn
p.34-41
Projects
21
>>
A hydrogen fuel cell forklift prototype was realized in 2007 with a local manufacturer. The concept
will be replicated at three sites in Europe for a total of 10 vehicles and their refuelling stations.
H
2
Ecolift
Fitted with a 2
x
4
kW
engine, the H
2
Ecolift
has a lifting capacity
of up to 1500
kg.
Forklift vehicles are one of the
mainstays of modern industries
and businesses and are found
anywhere heavy items need to
be moved from one place to an
-
other. Commonly, electric motors
powered by lead acid batteries
provide locomotion and lift, but al
-
though lead acid batteries are well
established technologies, many
problems are still inherent in their
use.
A fully operational system
In particular, batteries require con
-
siderable times for charging before
use, are prone to voltage reduc
-
tions as charge decreases and
suffer long change over times. In
contrast, systems in which batter
-
ies are replaced by modern fuel
cell packs exhibit none of these
drawbacks and are being touted
as serious competitors to tradi
-
tional forklifts.
In 2007, ICHET identified fork
-
lifts as a key area and developed,
in collaboration with its partner
Çumitas, a fully operational system
that has been used at a num
-
ber of test sites in Turkey. Taking
this concept a stage further in
2010, ICHET started a collabora
-
tion with the SHEL project of the
European commission Fuel Cells
and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking
to build a fleet of forklifts and op
-
erate them in locations throughout
Europe.
Fuel cell powered forklifts
>> Projects >>
Turkey, Spain and UK
“Sustainable Hydrogen
Evaluation in Logistics”
(SHEL) project will be
implementing 10 forklifts
and their refuelling
stations in 3 sites located
in Turkey, Spain and UK.
Its main aim is to evaluate
market readiness.
G. D.
23
>>
IDO
The control room,
turnstyles and voice
announcement
system of Istanbul
Sea Bus company
(IDO) headquarters
are protected by a
hydrogen fuel cell
uninterruptible
power unit.
Following the succesful installation of a hydrogen uninterruptible power system in Istanbul,
ICHET is now participating in a EU project aiming at installing 19 such systems throughout Europe.
Uninterruptible power systems
(UPS) have typically relied on die
-
sel generators or batteries for
backup energy storage. Recent
advances in hydrogen fuel cell
technologies, however, have pro
-
vided an environmentally friendly
solution. ICHET has inaugurated
on 2
nd
August 2009 the installation
of such a PEM hydrogen fuel cell
based UPS system in the Yenikapı
pier headquarter offices of Istanbul
Sea Bus company (IDO), thus al
-
lowing the demonstration of this
technology to millions of commut
-
ers every year.
ICHET is also project partner of the
FITUP project. Conceived within
the framework of the European
commission Fuel Cells and
Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, this
project aims at installing a total of
19 fuel cell systems as UPS/back
-
up power sources in selected sites
across Europe by the end of 2013.
Market entry
Exemple real-world customers have
been selected from the telecom
-
munications and hotel industries.
They will utilize the fuel cell-based
systems at their sites and employ
power consumption levels ranging
between 1 and 10
kW. These units
will demonstrate a level of technical
performance (start-up time, reli
-
ability, durability, number of cycles)
that qualifies them for market entry,
thereby accelerating the commer
-
cialization of this technology in
Turkey, Europe and elsewhere.
Fuel cell UPS installations
>> Projects >>
UPS projects facts
5
kW.
The power consumption
of the Yenikapı UPS
system.
Turkey Vodafone Headquarters.
One of the 19 sites, along
with Swisscom and
Lucerne cantonal police,
to be equipped by a UPS
in the frame of FITUP.
Courtesy of IDO
25
>>
Three wheeled vehicles are a very
popular mode of transport in many
Asian metropolises. By converting
them to run on hydrogen, a drastic
reduction in the levels of air pol
-
lutants they cause in urban areas
can be achieved. Local produc
-
tion of hydrogen from indigenous
renewable energy sources also
has the potential to reduce overall
greenhouse gas emissions as well
as lessen dependence on import
-
ed fossil fuels.
To this end, the implementation
of a demonstration fleet of 15
hydrogen internal combustion
engine propelled autorickshaws
was initiated in March 2009 in
India. The fleet is to be used to
carry passengers and goods in
New Delhi at the Pragati Maidan
exhibition grounds, the largest
of the country, and is being ser
-
viced by a refuelling station built
on the site as part of the project.
This project has been realized by
a consortium of local and interna
-
tional partners including ICHET,
IIT Delhi, Mahindra & Mahindra,
Air Products and UNIDO India. It
also benefited from the support of
ITPO and of the Indian Ministry of
New and Renewable Energies.
Cost reduction
A series of new energy policy
measures have recently been tak
-
en by India which may lead to the
country playing a significant role
in the development of hydrogen
energy technologies and contrib
-
ute to the creation of a real market
through mass production and re
-
duced costs.
Hydrogen autorickshaws can efficiently address the pollution iss
ues of many Asian metropolises.
As part of its new energy policies, India is currently implementing a demonstration fleet.
Hy-Alpha
prototype
Mathew Abraham,
from Mahindra &
Mahindra, posing
next to the Hy-
Alpha hydrogen
autorickshaw
prototype.
India goes for hydrogen
30,000
The number of PEM fuel
cell units ordered by India
Telecoms in May 2008.
The single largest fuel cell
supply contract to date.
2020 GIFT and GIP
Indian government
hydrogen inclusive
initiatives for transport
and stationary
applications.
Hydrogen for the masses
>> Projects >>
29
>>
28
>>
sources when converting gener
-
ated electricity into hydrogen.
The system will be providing elec
-
tricity back to the building at times
of low sunlight and wind condi
-
tions through the genset and fuel
cells.
In the Cook Islands
A number of technological devel
-
opment tests will be performed
both to demonstrate the practical
nature of the system and provide
training activities to engineers from
the developing world.
Profiting from this experience and
with financing from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF), ICHET
is realizing a similar project on
Aitutaki, an island of the Cook
Islands in the South Pacific. In
this case, a 200
kW photovoltaic
system is to be connected to the
900
kW peak autonomous island
grid. To avoid possible grid in
-
stability, any excess solar power
will be converted to hydrogen by
a 50
kW electrolyser and, after
compression, stored for further us
-
age by fuel cells. To explore and
promote concepts of hydrogen
energy for remote island com
-
munities, ICHET is leading a new
Annex of the International Energy
Agency Hydrogen Implementing
Agreement. The “Distributed and
Community Hydrogen” annex will
investigate the technical, economic
and social strengths and weak
-
nesses of such systems in existing
installations around the globe.
Island communities can greatly benefit from the usage of clean, renewabl
e energy sources.
ICHET is realizing such a project
on Bozcaada island in the Aegean
sea. It consists of 20
kW of pho
-
tovoltaic panels, a 30
kW wind
turbine, a 50
kW – 10
Nm
3
/hour
capacity electrolyser, hydrogen
storage for 60
kg of hydrogen, a
35
kW hydrogen gen-set and a
25
kW PEM fuel cell. The com
-
plete system will be installed in
the spring of 2011 in a plot at the
Governor’s building. Both the local
Governor and Mayor of Bozcaada
have welcomed the opportunity to
erect the system on the island.
Hydrogen will be produced from
electricity generated by the PV
panels and wind turbine. A spe
-
cial electrolyser has been chosen
that can accommodate the rapid
and stochastic power changes in
electrical output typical of such
H
2
system on
Bozcaada island
The renewable
hydrogen facility
installed by ICHET
on Bozcaada Island
Governorship site
consists of a
30
kW wind turbine,
a 20
kW array of
photovoltaic cells
and a 25
kW PEM
fuel cell.
>> Hydrogen islands
>>
>> Projects >>
31
>>
Using renewable energies in mo
-
bile houses is a reality today, but
associating renewable energies
with hydrogen, and efficiently us
-
ing renewable energies is still much
undeveloped. In many cases, re
-
newable energies can replace
those from traditional sources, but
the main constraint is how these
energies can be stored. Hydrogen
is a viable solution for storing sur
-
plus energy for later use.
Based on the idea of bringing to
-
gether these different concepts to
develop a self-sustainable mobile
dwelling, the Ecocaravan is a RV
type vehicle, a self-sustained liv
-
ing space complete with all the
modern facilities. It is an evolution
of the Mobile Renewable House
ICHET project.
One week autonomy
Fitted with a small wind turbine
and an array of photovoltaic cells,
the Ecocaravan is able to pro
-
duce its own electricity from wind
and solar energy or, in absence
thereof, from the stored hydrogen
obtained through electrolysis dur
-
ing excess electricity production.
Its mobility, reactivity and flexibility
are its distinctive hallmark: an au
-
tonomous self propelled living unit
which can rely on its hydrogen
stock for approximately one week
of normal usage and is therefore
suitable for operation in remote
areas or in emergency relief con
-
ditions.
The Ecocaravan is an experimental RV type vehicle harnessing the power of wind and sun within
a comprehensive hydrogen production, storage and usage system for increased autonomy.
In stationary
mode
When stationary, the
Ecocaravan deploys
its wind turbine and
sun tracking PV cells
in order to recharge
its energy reserves.
The Ecocaravan hits the road
>> Projects >>
Ecocaravan figures
1710
W
Sun tracking PV panels
1000
W
Retractible wind turbine
1200
W
PEM fuel cell
5000
L - 15000
Wh
Metal hydride hydrogen
storage
35
>>
Transport
routes
A number of
transport routes
ensuring high visibility
for the project are
currently being
studied by Istanbul
municipality.
Refuelling station
(Eyüp)
Bus route
Beşiktaş
Edirnekapı
A flooded prehistoric estuary
used as a natural harbour under
the Bizantine Empire, the Golden
Horn later became a major ship
-
yard location during the Ottoman
empire. Today the Golden Horn is
once again becoming the focus of
attentions, not only because of the
countless historical sites and lei
-
sure sites that surround it, but also
because it is to be the heart of a
threefold hydrogen public trans
-
portation project conducted jointly
by Istanbul Municipality and the
International Centre for Hydrogen
Energy Technologies.
The project consists of the de
-
velopment of a hybrid bus, of a
passenger ship and of a hydro
-
gen filling station. The bus and the
passenger ship will be integrated
into the Istanbul public transpor
-
tation network once the hydrogen
filling station required for their op
-
eration is up and running.
A World Premiere
Hydrogen energy transportation
technologies by themselves are
indeed useless if not appropriate
-
ly supplemented with hydrogen
fuelling infrastructures. By bringing
together all these complementary
aspects of hydrogen transpor
-
tation (land transportation, sea
transportation, refuelling), the
Golden Horn project will be a
milestone in the development of
hydrogen related transportation
systems in Turkey.
The Golden Horn filling station will
be the first hydrogen filling station
in Turkey, and a world first as a hy
-
drogen facility supplying both sea
and land transportation vehicles.
ICHET and Istanbul Municipality are working for the implementation of a series of high visibility
hydrogen energy public transportation projects centred on a refuelling facility in the Golden Horn.
Commuting in Istanbul
Istanbul Municipality
operates 2768 buses
and 44 ships. 2.5 million
privately owned cars are
commuting every day
in Istanbul. More than
2
millions Istanbulites
commute in buses and
ships every day.
Hydrogen in the Golden Horn
!
>> Projects >>
Ship routes
37
>>
A hydrogen filling station located
on the Golden Horn banks is be
-
ing developed in partnership with
Istanbul Greater City Municipality.
Upon completetion in May 2012,
it will be used as a production,
storage and refuelling facility with
the capability of dispensing up to
65
kg of hydrogen gas per day to
the buses and ships which are
currently being worked on as part
of the Golden Horn project.
Hydrogen Highway
The location of the filling station
is specifically chosen in order to
supply both buses and ships at
a single lo
-
cation. It
will be in
-
strumental in supporting
Turkey’s automotive sector’s
endeavours towards the develop
-
ment of clean energy vehicles by
providing them real life test op
-
portunities for hydrogen powered
vehicles. The Golden Horn fuelling
station is planned to be the first
step of an upcoming “hydrogen
corridor”.
While hydrogen systems are often
experimented in small size vehi
-
cles such as cars and SUVs, there
are considerably fewer hydrogen
powered buses in operation.
The second part of the Golden
Horn project consists in the devel
-
opment of a hybrid bus propelled
by a hydrogen internal combus
-
tion engine and a battery pack
of 140
kW combined power. Its
design has benefitted consider
-
ably from local manufacturers’
expertise in bus construction and
development and local conditions.
Environmentally friendly
The hybrid bus will not only reduce
emissions under city traffic condi
-
tions, but also to allow savings on
fuel consumption. This project will
gain from the high visibility of a bus
route passing through historical
sites in Western Istanbul. The city
will be an important test ground
for the running of the bus in con
-
gested traffic and ICHET will be
collecting precious technical data
whilst conducting the first opera
-
tional phase.
>> Projects >>
Istanbul tour on board a hybrid hydrogen bus
A fuelling station for land and sea transportation
>> Golden Horn projects
>>
The Istanbul Golden Horn project
includes the development of a
hydrogen powered ship with, as
the main stakeholders, Istanbul
Municipality and its technology
development company Belbim.
Externally funded, this passenger
boat project is being realized with
the support of ICHET, which pro
-
vides its technical expertise and
fuel cell testing facilities.
Propelled by an electric motor
and powered by a 48
kW fuel cell
stack, this vessel will be carry
-
ing up to 50 passengers around
the Golden Horn. As is the case
with the hybrid bus project, the
operation of the ship will be the
opportunity to collect technical
data in order to precisely assess
the benefits of the system.
The hydrogen powered ship pro
-
ject is also part of a larger ICHET
scheme aiming at transferring hy
-
drogen related expertise to third
parties.
Start of operation by end 2011
Smaller-sized similar hydrogen fuel
cell boats are being developed in
projects ran in five Turkish univer
-
sities with support from ICHET,
which is donating the fuel cell
and necessary hydrogen related
parts. The university teams are
already benefiting from ICHET
training and expertise in hy
-
drogen energy systems
as well as from ICHET’s
fuel cell test facilities in
order to develop their
vessels, whose op
-
eration is planned
to take place in the
Golden Horn and in selected in
shore waters. The boats are
expected to be completed
and start operation by the
end of 2011.
On the Golden Horn in hydrogen powered boats
39
>>
38
>>
>> Golden Horn projects
>>
Hybrid bus
The 90 kW HICE based
hybrid bus prototype
will be based on the
existing “Cobra” bus
model developed by
the Turkish company
Güleryüz.
Passenger ship
A hydrogen fuel cell
powered 50-passenger
vessel designed together
with Istanbul Municipal
Data Processing
Corporation is to be
launched in 2012.
Caption
headline
Torporrunt. Ducil
invero de porenis
ma voluptam aut
que nonessuntis
doluptate
nonsequidis
soluptatus, opta
dipsust, cusae
natecte sanditisit
eos vollia sam venihit
aturiscient.
43
>>
While the principles and blueprints of the hydrogen energy
technology basics have by now become widely available, the
full scale implementation of a hydrogen inclusive economy still
requires further applied R&D effort, especially in countries aiming
at developing their own capabilities. ICHET is supporting such
efforts through the financing of selected consortia based research
programmes.
Local fuel cell
production
p.
44-45
House type
cogeneration
p.
46-47
Hydrogen and
hythane engines
p.
48-49
Applied R&D
A
fuel cell
is an
electrochemi
-
cal cell
that
converts
chemical
energy
from a fuel into
electric
energy. Its principle was discov
-
ered by German scientist
Christian
Friedrich Schönbein
in 1838.
Fuel cells are already used as pow
-
er sources in remote locations,
such as spacecrafts (Apollo, Space
Shuttle), remote weather stations,
large parks, rural locations, and in
certain military applications. A fuel
cell system running on hydrogen
can be compact and lightweight,
and has no major moving parts,
hence achieving a theoretical reli
-
ability close to 100%.
Wherever the transition to a hydro
-
gen economy takes place, local
fuel cell manufacturing will be a
major asset. As part of its R&D
support activities, ICHET is fund
-
ing such project in Turkey.
$500,000 funding
The goal of the project is to design
and industrialize a 3
kW PEM fuel
cell, the membrane electrode as
-
sembly and plates of which have
to be manufactured in Turkey.
The fuel cell has to withstand over
1000 hours of system operation.
Following a successful project
proposal, a consortium coordinat
-
ed by the Middle-East Technical
University in Ankara will ben
-
efit from $
500,000 funding from
ICHET.
Domestic fuel cell production capabilities are a definite asset
for countries willing to perform the
switch towards a hydrogen inclusive system. A related R&D project is currently underway in Turkey.
PEM
fuel cell
In the hydrogen–
oxygen
proton
exchange
membrane fuel
cell
(PEMFC), a
proton-conducting
polymer
membrane,
(the electrolyte),
separates the
anode and
cathode sides.
By Nécropotame at fr.wikipedia [FAL], from Wikimedia Commons
45
>>
Fuel cell production in Turkey
>> R&D >>
H
e
-
O
H
+
Bipolar plate
Electrode
Gas diffusion layer
Membrane
2
H
2
Air (O )
2
Paradigm change
Hydrogen can replace
the fossil fuel burned
in
internal combustion
engines
and
turbines
as
the primary way to
convert chemical energy
into kinetic or electrical
energy, hereby eliminating
greenhouse gas
emissions and pollution.




 
 
 
 
 
Hydrogen energy in action
H
e
-
O
H
+
Bipolar plate
Electrode
Gas diffusion layer
Membrane
2
H
2
Air (O )
2
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE
FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
A project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
UNIDO-ICHET
Sabri Ülker Sk. 38/4, Cevizlibag, Zeytinburnu, 34015 Istanbul, Turkey. Tel. +90 212 416 48 48. Fax. +90 212 416 89 47
www.unido-ichet.org
ICHET - Hydrogen energy in action
(2
nd
edition)
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE
FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
UNIDO-ICHET, June 2011. Second edition.
7 years of hydrogen energy
>> Contents >>
Foreword: “Shaping a vision”
................................................................................................................................
10-11
Towards renewable hydrogen
...............................................................................................................................
12-13
The birth and role of ICHET
..................................................................................................................................
14-15
Spotlight on: ICHET donors
..............................................................................................................................
16-17
Projects
..............................................................................................................................................................
18-41
Fuel cell powered forklifts
............................................................................................................................
20-21
Fuel cell UPS installations
............................................................................................................................
22-23
Hydrogen three wheeled vehicles
................................................................................................................
24-25
Hydrogen island projects
.............................................................................................................................
26-29
The Ecocaravan
..........................................................................................................................................
30-31
Spotlight on: the Ecocaravan Tour
.........................................................................................................
32-33
The Golden Horn hydrogen ecosystem
.......................................................................................................
34-41
The fuelling station
..................................................................................................................................
36
The hybrid bus
.......................................................................................................................................
37
Hydrogen boats
.................................................................................................................................
38-39
Applied R&D
.......................................................................................................................................................
42-49
Fuel cell production in Turkey
......................................................................................................................
44-45
SOFC based cogeneration
..........................................................................................................................
46-47
Hythane and hydrogen engine production
...................................................................................................
48-49
Support
...............................................................................................................................................................
50-57
Funding
.......................................................................................................................................................
52-53
Training and dissemination
..........................................................................................................................
54-55
Laboratories
................................................................................................................................................
56-57
Spotlight on: ICHET laboratories
.....................................................................................................................
58-59
Corporate information
......................................................................................................................................
60-67
Human resources
........................................................................................................................................
62-63
Budget evolution
.........................................................................................................................................
64-65
Partnerships
................................................................................................................................................
66-67
Closing words: “The hydrogen challenge”
.............................................................................................................
70-73
Acknowledgement
.....................................................................................................................................................
79
9
>>
Our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture
the human species if the exploitation and consumption
of fossil fuel sources continues at its current rate.
Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
ICHET Managing Director
>> Foreword >>
11
>>
10
>>
Shaping a vision
The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET) is a project of the
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) founded in Istanbul in 2004
and supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. Today, at ICHET,
our engineers and scientists help implement a variety of hydrogen and hydrogen-inclusive
projects with universities, R&D institutes and other partners in the public and private sector,
with special emphasis on the latter for private sector involvement is a must in order to market
hydrogen technology products and achieve their industrialization. An endeavour reflecting
7
years of operation on the hydrogen energy front, this book is an opportunity to sit and look
back at our achievements in order to better gauge what is still ahead. More than a compila
-
tion of corporate statistics, demonstration projects and R&D programmes, it documents a
coherent vision supplemented by real-life implementations that are laying the foundations of
the first stages of a hydrogen inclusive economy.
UNIDO-ICHET Managing Director Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
Because our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture the human spe
-
cies if the exploitation and consumption of fossil fuel sources continues
at its current rate, the gradual switch to clean energy resources has be
-
come a necessity. With an energy yield per weight unit triple that of fossil
fuels, hydrogen is the ideal energy carrier and storage medium and can
rightfully boast its zero carbon footprint when produced from renewable
resources.
Burnt in internal combustion engines, hydrogen can be converted into
thermal and kinetic energy. More importantly, it can also be turned directly into electricity
within fuel cells, those amazing electro-chemical devices that combine hydrogen with ambi
-
ent oxygen to produce electricity through a completely noise free process which releases
no more than pure water as a combustion product. Be it with internal combustion engines
or fuel cells, hydrogen applications can cover a wide range of needs, from transportation to
stationary systems through residential usage.
13
>>
Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to be the key technologies that will facilitate the
transition to a low carbon energy future in a similar way that oil and the internal combustion
engine displaced coal and the steam engine. Although hydrogen can be produced from
numerous primary energy sources, it is its production from renewables that renders it a
sustainable energy carrier. Along with biofuels, synthetic fuels and electricity, hydrogen is
foreseen to be one of the future energy carriers in transport and stationary applications. The
United States, the European Union, Canada and Japan have been investing heavily in the
development of hydrogen production, storage and use technologies including fuel cells, with
hydrogen playing a prominent role in their long term energy scenarios. Until recently how
-
ever, such efforts have been rare in the developing world, risking the opening of yet another
technology divide.
Towards renewable hydrogen
>> Introduction >>
Primary sources
Wind, sun and
biomass are some of
the renewable
primary energy
sources that could
be used in the
frame of a hydrogen
inclusive economy..
15
>>
14
>>
On 18
th
March 1974, a group of scientists and engineers, later to be known as the Hydrogen Romantics,
met at the “The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy” (THEME) conference and proposed the Hydrogen
Economy or Hydrogen Energy System as part of the solution addressing the interrelated global problems
of the depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental damage caused by their utilization. UNIDO, rec
-
ognizing the potential of hydrogen energy to better economic and environmental conditions, proposed
the establishment of an International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies and commissioned a
report on this issue to one of these Hydrogen Romantics: Prof. Nejat Veziroglu. This Centre was to pro
-
mote the conversion to a hydrogen inclusive economy by encouraging, coordinating and speeding-up
hydrogen energy related activities in the developing world. Candidate sites for the location of the Centre
were evaluated on the basis that they should be situated between the developed and developing coun
-
tries, be easily reachable and benefit from the support of an industrial nation. The city of Istanbul in
Turkey, located between the two continents of Europe and Asia and close to a third, Africa, fulfilled all
these requirements. As a result of discussions and negotiations, Turkish Government agreed to spon
-
sor and host this Centre and to commit $40M of initial funding. The Trust Fund Agreement establishing
the Centre was signed on 21
st
October 2003 by Director General of UNIDO, H. E. Carlos Magarinos,
and the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey, Dr. M. Hilmi Guler. Ratification of the
treaty, soon followed paving the way for the centre’s commencement with Dr. Veziroglu as its founding
director. When ICHET started operation
on 19
th
May 2004, some sixteen years
of behind-the-scenes lobbying, negotia
-
tion and diplomacy had finally come to
fruition. Dr. Veziroglu retired on April 31
st
2007, leaving Dr. Engin Türe in charge for
an interim period. Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
was then appointed Managing Director
of the Centre on 1
st
February 2008. The
vast majority of ICHET projects have
been completed under his direction.
Economic development
Since the establishment of its full hu
-
man resource and laboratory structure
in 2009, ICHET has been overtly active on all fronts of the hydrogen energy arena through its support
to R&D and by implementing demonstration projects. More than ever its role is not only to support,
demonstrate and promote viable hydrogen energy technologies with the aims of enhancing future eco
-
nomic development, particularly in emerging countries, but also to prevent the widening of the energy
and technology gap while skipping over the fossil fuel phase.
The birth and role of ICHET
>> Introduction >>
Dr. Hilmi Güler (left) and Mr. Carlos Magarinos (right) signing the ICHET Trust Fund Agreement
on 21
st
October 2003.
17
>>
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources or MENR (Turkish: Enerji ve
Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlıgı) is the government ministry office of the Republic
of Turkey responsible for energy and natural resources related affairs in
Turkey.cIts mission is to reduce Turkey’s external energy dependencies and
contribute to national welfare through efficient, effective, safe, timely and
environmentally friendly use of energy and natural resource.
Between 1990 and 2008 in Turkey, annual average rate of increase in primary energy demand was realized as 4,3
%.
Turkey has had the highest rate of energy demand increase of any other OECD countries over the past 10 years.
Similarly, since 2000, Turkey has been the second largest economy after China for having the highest rate of in
-
crease in electricity and gas demand. Projections show that this trend will continue in the medium run. According to
the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yıldız, in order to address this demand increase while making a
rational use of natural resources, “it is of great importance to [...] diversify energy production using new technologies
and increase the efficiency of the existing technologies, and implement policies and strategies which
intend to use alternative energy sources”.
>> Spotlight on: ICHET donors >>
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
is a specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in
Vienna, Austria. Its mandate is to promote and accelerate sustain
-
able industrial development in developing countries and economies
in transition, and work towards improving living conditions in the
world’s poorest countries by drawing on its combined global re
-
sources and expertise. In recent years, UNIDO has assumed an
enhanced role in the global development agenda by focusing its
activities on poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environ
-
mental sustainability. Energy is a prerequisite for poverty reduction.
Still, fundamental changes in the way societies produce and con
-
sume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development.
UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consump
-
tion and production. As a leading provider of services for improved
industrial energy efficiency and sustainability, UNIDO assists
developing countries and transition economies in imple
-
menting multilateral environmental agreements and
in simultaneously reaching their economic
and environmental goals.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey
UNIDO Director General
Kandeh Yumkella.
Turkish Minister of Energy and
Natural Resources Taner Yıldız.
17
>>
Courtesy of MENR
Courtesy of UNIDO
Caption
headline
Torporrunt. Ducil
invero de porenis
ma voluptam aut
que nonessuntis
doluptate
nonsequidis
soluptatus, opta
dipsust, cusae
natecte sanditisit
eos vollia sam venihit
aturiscient.
19
>>
Hydrogen technologies already exist. ICHET is playing a crucial
role in promoting them and ensuring that hydrogen finds its
place in the UN energy vision, strategy and implementation
plans. This promotion is best achieved through demonstrations
of viable technologies with the aim not only of drawing attention
but also to gain experience, identify areas for improvement and
solve the remaining engineering and logistical problems.
Fuel cell
based forklifts
p.20-21
Implementing
hydrogen islands
p.26-29
Uninterruptible
power systems
p.22-23
The Ecocaravan
hits the road
p.30-33
Autorickshaws
in New-Delhi
p.24-25
Around the
Golden Horn
p.34-41
Projects
21
>>
A hydrogen fuel cell forklift prototype was realized in 2007 with a local manufacturer. The concept
will be replicated at three sites in Europe for a total of 10 vehicles and their refuelling stations.
H
2
Ecolift
Fitted with a 2
x
4
kW
engine, the H
2
Ecolift
has a lifting capacity
of up to 1500
kg.
Forklift vehicles are one of the
mainstays of modern industries
and businesses and are found
anywhere heavy items need to
be moved from one place to an
-
other. Commonly, electric motors
powered by lead acid batteries
provide locomotion and lift, but al
-
though lead acid batteries are well
established technologies, many
problems are still inherent in their
use.
A fully operational system
In particular, batteries require con
-
siderable times for charging before
use, are prone to voltage reduc
-
tions as charge decreases and
suffer long change over times. In
contrast, systems in which batter
-
ies are replaced by modern fuel
cell packs exhibit none of these
drawbacks and are being touted
as serious competitors to tradi
-
tional forklifts.
In 2007, ICHET identified fork
-
lifts as a key area and developed,
in collaboration with its partner
Çumitas, a fully operational system
that has been used at a num
-
ber of test sites in Turkey. Taking
this concept a stage further in
2010, ICHET started a collabora
-
tion with the SHEL project of the
European commission Fuel Cells
and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking
to build a fleet of forklifts and op
-
erate them in locations throughout
Europe.
Fuel cell powered forklifts
>> Projects >>
Turkey, Spain and UK
“Sustainable Hydrogen
Evaluation in Logistics”
(SHEL) project will be
implementing 10 forklifts
and their refuelling
stations in 3 sites located
in Turkey, Spain and UK.
Its main aim is to evaluate
market readiness.
G. D.
23
>>
IDO
The control room,
turnstyles and voice
announcement
system of Istanbul
Sea Bus company
(IDO) headquarters
are protected by a
hydrogen fuel cell
uninterruptible
power unit.
Following the succesful installation of a hydrogen uninterruptible power system in Istanbul,
ICHET is now participating in a EU project aiming at installing 19 such systems throughout Europe.
Uninterruptible power systems
(UPS) have typically relied on die
-
sel generators or batteries for
backup energy storage. Recent
advances in hydrogen fuel cell
technologies, however, have pro
-
vided an environmentally friendly
solution. ICHET has inaugurated
on 2
nd
August 2009 the installation
of such a PEM hydrogen fuel cell
based UPS system in the Yenikapı
pier headquarter offices of Istanbul
Sea Bus company (IDO), thus al
-
lowing the demonstration of this
technology to millions of commut
-
ers every year.
ICHET is also project partner of the
FITUP project. Conceived within
the framework of the European
commission Fuel Cells and
Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, this
project aims at installing a total of
19 fuel cell systems as UPS/back
-
up power sources in selected sites
across Europe by the end of 2013.
Market entry
Exemple real-world customers have
been selected from the telecom
-
munications and hotel industries.
They will utilize the fuel cell-based
systems at their sites and employ
power consumption levels ranging
between 1 and 10
kW. These units
will demonstrate a level of technical
performance (start-up time, reli
-
ability, durability, number of cycles)
that qualifies them for market entry,
thereby accelerating the commer
-
cialization of this technology in
Turkey, Europe and elsewhere.
Fuel cell UPS installations
>> Projects >>
UPS projects facts
5
kW.
The power consumption
of the Yenikapı UPS
system.
Turkey Vodafone Headquarters.
One of the 19 sites, along
with Swisscom and
Lucerne cantonal police,
to be equipped by a UPS
in the frame of FITUP.
Courtesy of IDO
25
>>
Three wheeled vehicles are a very
popular mode of transport in many
Asian metropolises. By converting
them to run on hydrogen, a drastic
reduction in the levels of air pol
-
lutants they cause in urban areas
can be achieved. Local produc
-
tion of hydrogen from indigenous
renewable energy sources also
has the potential to reduce overall
greenhouse gas emissions as well
as lessen dependence on import
-
ed fossil fuels.
To this end, the implementation
of a demonstration fleet of 15
hydrogen internal combustion
engine propelled autorickshaws
was initiated in March 2009 in
India. The fleet is to be used to
carry passengers and goods in
New Delhi at the Pragati Maidan
exhibition grounds, the largest
of the country, and is being ser
-
viced by a refuelling station built
on the site as part of the project.
This project has been realized by
a consortium of local and interna
-
tional partners including ICHET,
IIT Delhi, Mahindra & Mahindra,
Air Products and UNIDO India. It
also benefited from the support of
ITPO and of the Indian Ministry of
New and Renewable Energies.
Cost reduction
A series of new energy policy
measures have recently been tak
-
en by India which may lead to the
country playing a significant role
in the development of hydrogen
energy technologies and contrib
-
ute to the creation of a real market
through mass production and re
-
duced costs.
Hydrogen autorickshaws can efficiently address the pollution iss
ues of many Asian metropolises.
As part of its new energy policies, India is currently implementing a demonstration fleet.
Hy-Alpha
prototype
Mathew Abraham,
from Mahindra &
Mahindra, posing
next to the Hy-
Alpha hydrogen
autorickshaw
prototype.
India goes for hydrogen
30,000
The number of PEM fuel
cell units ordered by India
Telecoms in May 2008.
The single largest fuel cell
supply contract to date.
2020 GIFT and GIP
Indian government
hydrogen inclusive
initiatives for transport
and stationary
applications.
Hydrogen for the masses
>> Projects >>
29
>>
28
>>
sources when converting gener
-
ated electricity into hydrogen.
The system will be providing elec
-
tricity back to the building at times
of low sunlight and wind condi
-
tions through the genset and fuel
cells.
In the Cook Islands
A number of technological devel
-
opment tests will be performed
both to demonstrate the practical
nature of the system and provide
training activities to engineers from
the developing world.
Profiting from this experience and
with financing from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF), ICHET
is realizing a similar project on
Aitutaki, an island of the Cook
Islands in the South Pacific. In
this case, a 200
kW photovoltaic
system is to be connected to the
900
kW peak autonomous island
grid. To avoid possible grid in
-
stability, any excess solar power
will be converted to hydrogen by
a 50
kW electrolyser and, after
compression, stored for further us
-
age by fuel cells. To explore and
promote concepts of hydrogen
energy for remote island com
-
munities, ICHET is leading a new
Annex of the International Energy
Agency Hydrogen Implementing
Agreement. The “Distributed and
Community Hydrogen” annex will
investigate the technical, economic
and social strengths and weak
-
nesses of such systems in existing
installations around the globe.
Island communities can greatly benefit from the usage of clean, renewabl
e energy sources.
ICHET is realizing such a project
on Bozcaada island in the Aegean
sea. It consists of 20
kW of pho
-
tovoltaic panels, a 30
kW wind
turbine, a 50
kW – 10
Nm
3
/hour
capacity electrolyser, hydrogen
storage for 60
kg of hydrogen, a
35
kW hydrogen gen-set and a
25
kW PEM fuel cell. The com
-
plete system will be installed in
the spring of 2011 in a plot at the
Governor’s building. Both the local
Governor and Mayor of Bozcaada
have welcomed the opportunity to
erect the system on the island.
Hydrogen will be produced from
electricity generated by the PV
panels and wind turbine. A spe
-
cial electrolyser has been chosen
that can accommodate the rapid
and stochastic power changes in
electrical output typical of such
H
2
system on
Bozcaada island
The renewable
hydrogen facility
installed by ICHET
on Bozcaada Island
Governorship site
consists of a
30
kW wind turbine,
a 20
kW array of
photovoltaic cells
and a 25
kW PEM
fuel cell.
>> Hydrogen islands
>>
>> Projects >>
31
>>
Using renewable energies in mo
-
bile houses is a reality today, but
associating renewable energies
with hydrogen, and efficiently us
-
ing renewable energies is still much
undeveloped. In many cases, re
-
newable energies can replace
those from traditional sources, but
the main constraint is how these
energies can be stored. Hydrogen
is a viable solution for storing sur
-
plus energy for later use.
Based on the idea of bringing to
-
gether these different concepts to
develop a self-sustainable mobile
dwelling, the Ecocaravan is a RV
type vehicle, a self-sustained liv
-
ing space complete with all the
modern facilities. It is an evolution
of the Mobile Renewable House
ICHET project.
One week autonomy
Fitted with a small wind turbine
and an array of photovoltaic cells,
the Ecocaravan is able to pro
-
duce its own electricity from wind
and solar energy or, in absence
thereof, from the stored hydrogen
obtained through electrolysis dur
-
ing excess electricity production.
Its mobility, reactivity and flexibility
are its distinctive hallmark: an au
-
tonomous self propelled living unit
which can rely on its hydrogen
stock for approximately one week
of normal usage and is therefore
suitable for operation in remote
areas or in emergency relief con
-
ditions.
The Ecocaravan is an experimental RV type vehicle harnessing the power of wind and sun within
a comprehensive hydrogen production, storage and usage system for increased autonomy.
In stationary
mode
When stationary, the
Ecocaravan deploys
its wind turbine and
sun tracking PV cells
in order to recharge
its energy reserves.
The Ecocaravan hits the road
>> Projects >>
Ecocaravan figures
1710
W
Sun tracking PV panels
1000
W
Retractible wind turbine
1200
W
PEM fuel cell
5000
L - 15000
Wh
Metal hydride hydrogen
storage
35
>>
Transport
routes
A number of
transport routes
ensuring high visibility
for the project are
currently being
studied by Istanbul
municipality.
Refuelling station
(Eyüp)
Bus route
Beşiktaş
Edirnekapı
A flooded prehistoric estuary
used as a natural harbour under
the Bizantine Empire, the Golden
Horn later became a major ship
-
yard location during the Ottoman
empire. Today the Golden Horn is
once again becoming the focus of
attentions, not only because of the
countless historical sites and lei
-
sure sites that surround it, but also
because it is to be the heart of a
threefold hydrogen public trans
-
portation project conducted jointly
by Istanbul Municipality and the
International Centre for Hydrogen
Energy Technologies.
The project consists of the de
-
velopment of a hybrid bus, of a
passenger ship and of a hydro
-
gen filling station. The bus and the
passenger ship will be integrated
into the Istanbul public transpor
-
tation network once the hydrogen
filling station required for their op
-
eration is up and running.
A World Premiere
Hydrogen energy transportation
technologies by themselves are
indeed useless if not appropriate
-
ly supplemented with hydrogen
fuelling infrastructures. By bringing
together all these complementary
aspects of hydrogen transpor
-
tation (land transportation, sea
transportation, refuelling), the
Golden Horn project will be a
milestone in the development of
hydrogen related transportation
systems in Turkey.
The Golden Horn filling station will
be the first hydrogen filling station
in Turkey, and a world first as a hy
-
drogen facility supplying both sea
and land transportation vehicles.
ICHET and Istanbul Municipality are working for the implementation of a series of high visibility
hydrogen energy public transportation projects centred on a refuelling facility in the Golden Horn.
Commuting in Istanbul
Istanbul Municipality
operates 2768 buses
and 44 ships. 2.5 million
privately owned cars are
commuting every day
in Istanbul. More than
2
millions Istanbulites
commute in buses and
ships every day.
Hydrogen in the Golden Horn
!
>> Projects >>
Ship routes
37
>>
A hydrogen filling station located
on the Golden Horn banks is be
-
ing developed in partnership with
Istanbul Greater City Municipality.
Upon completetion in May 2012,
it will be used as a production,
storage and refuelling facility with
the capability of dispensing up to
65
kg of hydrogen gas per day to
the buses and ships which are
currently being worked on as part
of the Golden Horn project.
Hydrogen Highway
The location of the filling station
is specifically chosen in order to
supply both buses and ships at
a single lo
-
cation. It
will be in
-
strumental in supporting
Turkey’s automotive sector’s
endeavours towards the develop
-
ment of clean energy vehicles by
providing them real life test op
-
portunities for hydrogen powered
vehicles. The Golden Horn fuelling
station is planned to be the first
step of an upcoming “hydrogen
corridor”.
While hydrogen systems are often
experimented in small size vehi
-
cles such as cars and SUVs, there
are considerably fewer hydrogen
powered buses in operation.
The second part of the Golden
Horn project consists in the devel
-
opment of a hybrid bus propelled
by a hydrogen internal combus
-
tion engine and a battery pack
of 140
kW combined power. Its
design has benefitted consider
-
ably from local manufacturers’
expertise in bus construction and
development and local conditions.
Environmentally friendly
The hybrid bus will not only reduce
emissions under city traffic condi
-
tions, but also to allow savings on
fuel consumption. This project will
gain from the high visibility of a bus
route passing through historical
sites in Western Istanbul. The city
will be an important test ground
for the running of the bus in con
-
gested traffic and ICHET will be
collecting precious technical data
whilst conducting the first opera
-
tional phase.
>> Projects >>
Istanbul tour on board a hybrid hydrogen bus
A fuelling station for land and sea transportation
>> Golden Horn projects
>>
The Istanbul Golden Horn project
includes the development of a
hydrogen powered ship with, as
the main stakeholders, Istanbul
Municipality and its technology
development company Belbim.
Externally funded, this passenger
boat project is being realized with
the support of ICHET, which pro
-
vides its technical expertise and
fuel cell testing facilities.
Propelled by an electric motor
and powered by a 48
kW fuel cell
stack, this vessel will be carry
-
ing up to 50 passengers around
the Golden Horn. As is the case
with the hybrid bus project, the
operation of the ship will be the
opportunity to collect technical
data in order to precisely assess
the benefits of the system.
The hydrogen powered ship pro
-
ject is also part of a larger ICHET
scheme aiming at transferring hy
-
drogen related expertise to third
parties.
Start of operation by end 2011
Smaller-sized similar hydrogen fuel
cell boats are being developed in
projects ran in five Turkish univer
-
sities with support from ICHET,
which is donating the fuel cell
and necessary hydrogen related
parts. The university teams are
already benefiting from ICHET
training and expertise in hy
-
drogen energy systems
as well as from ICHET’s
fuel cell test facilities in
order to develop their
vessels, whose op
-
eration is planned
to take place in the
Golden Horn and in selected in
shore waters. The boats are
expected to be completed
and start operation by the
end of 2011.
On the Golden Horn in hydrogen powered boats
39
>>
38
>>
>> Golden Horn projects
>>
Hybrid bus
The 90 kW HICE based
hybrid bus prototype
will be based on the
existing “Cobra” bus
model developed by
the Turkish company
Güleryüz.
Passenger ship
A hydrogen fuel cell
powered 50-passenger
vessel designed together
with Istanbul Municipal
Data Processing
Corporation is to be
launched in 2012.
Caption
headline
Torporrunt. Ducil
invero de porenis
ma voluptam aut
que nonessuntis
doluptate
nonsequidis
soluptatus, opta
dipsust, cusae
natecte sanditisit
eos vollia sam venihit
aturiscient.
43
>>
While the principles and blueprints of the hydrogen energy
technology basics have by now become widely available, the
full scale implementation of a hydrogen inclusive economy still
requires further applied R&D effort, especially in countries aiming
at developing their own capabilities. ICHET is supporting such
efforts through the financing of selected consortia based research
programmes.
Local fuel cell
production
p.
44-45
House type
cogeneration
p.
46-47
Hydrogen and
hythane engines
p.
48-49
Applied R&D
A
fuel cell
is an
electrochemi
-
cal cell
that
converts
chemical
energy
from a fuel into
electric
energy. Its principle was discov
-
ered by German scientist
Christian
Friedrich Schönbein
in 1838.
Fuel cells are already used as pow
-
er sources in remote locations,
such as spacecrafts (Apollo, Space
Shuttle), remote weather stations,
large parks, rural locations, and in
certain military applications. A fuel
cell system running on hydrogen
can be compact and lightweight,
and has no major moving parts,
hence achieving a theoretical reli
-
ability close to 100%.
Wherever the transition to a hydro
-
gen economy takes place, local
fuel cell manufacturing will be a
major asset. As part of its R&D
support activities, ICHET is fund
-
ing such project in Turkey.
$500,000 funding
The goal of the project is to design
and industrialize a 3
kW PEM fuel
cell, the membrane electrode as
-
sembly and plates of which have
to be manufactured in Turkey.
The fuel cell has to withstand over
1000 hours of system operation.
Following a successful project
proposal, a consortium coordinat
-
ed by the Middle-East Technical
University in Ankara will ben
-
efit from $
500,000 funding from
ICHET.
Domestic fuel cell production capabilities are a definite asset
for countries willing to perform the
switch towards a hydrogen inclusive system. A related R&D project is currently underway in Turkey.
PEM
fuel cell
In the hydrogen–
oxygen
proton
exchange
membrane fuel
cell
(PEMFC), a
proton-conducting
polymer
membrane,
(the electrolyte),
separates the
anode and
cathode sides.
By Nécropotame at fr.wikipedia [FAL], from Wikimedia Commons
45
>>
Fuel cell production in Turkey
>> R&D >>
H
e
-
O
H
+
Bipolar plate
Electrode
Gas diffusion layer
Membrane
2
H
2
Air (O )
2
Paradigm change
Hydrogen can replace
the fossil fuel burned
in
internal combustion
engines
and
turbines
as
the primary way to
convert chemical energy
into kinetic or electrical
energy, hereby eliminating
greenhouse gas
emissions and pollution.


Hydrogen energy in action
H
e
-
O
H
+
Bipolar plate
Electrode
Gas diffusion layer
Membrane
2
H
2
Air (O )
2
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE
FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
A project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
UNIDO-ICHET
Sabri Ülker Sk. 38/4, Cevizlibag, Zeytinburnu, 34015 Istanbul, Turkey. Tel. +90 212 416 48 48. Fax. +90 212 416 89 47
www.unido-ichet.org
ICHET - Hydrogen energy in action
(2
nd
edition)
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE
FOR HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
UNIDO-ICHET, June 2011. Second edition.
7 years of hydrogen energy
>> Contents >>
Foreword: “Shaping a vision”
................................................................................................................................
10-11
Towards renewable hydrogen
...............................................................................................................................
12-13
The birth and role of ICHET
..................................................................................................................................
14-15
Spotlight on: ICHET donors
..............................................................................................................................
16-17
Projects
..............................................................................................................................................................
18-41
Fuel cell powered forklifts
............................................................................................................................
20-21
Fuel cell UPS installations
............................................................................................................................
22-23
Hydrogen three wheeled vehicles
................................................................................................................
24-25
Hydrogen island projects
.............................................................................................................................
26-29
The Ecocaravan
..........................................................................................................................................
30-31
Spotlight on: the Ecocaravan Tour
.........................................................................................................
32-33
The Golden Horn hydrogen ecosystem
.......................................................................................................
34-41
The fuelling station
..................................................................................................................................
36
The hybrid bus
.......................................................................................................................................
37
Hydrogen boats
.................................................................................................................................
38-39
Applied R&D
.......................................................................................................................................................
42-49
Fuel cell production in Turkey
......................................................................................................................
44-45
SOFC based cogeneration
..........................................................................................................................
46-47
Hythane and hydrogen engine production
...................................................................................................
48-49
Support
...............................................................................................................................................................
50-57
Funding
.......................................................................................................................................................
52-53
Training and dissemination
..........................................................................................................................
54-55
Laboratories
................................................................................................................................................
56-57
Spotlight on: ICHET laboratories
.....................................................................................................................
58-59
Corporate information
......................................................................................................................................
60-67
Human resources
........................................................................................................................................
62-63
Budget evolution
.........................................................................................................................................
64-65
Partnerships
................................................................................................................................................
66-67
Closing words: “The hydrogen challenge”
.............................................................................................................
70-73
Acknowledgement
.....................................................................................................................................................
79
9
>>
Our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture
the human species if the exploitation and consumption
of fossil fuel sources continues at its current rate.
Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
ICHET Managing Director
>> Foreword >>
11
>>
10
>>
Shaping a vision
The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET) is a project of the
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) founded in Istanbul in 2004
and supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. Today, at ICHET,
our engineers and scientists help implement a variety of hydrogen and hydrogen-inclusive
projects with universities, R&D institutes and other partners in the public and private sector,
with special emphasis on the latter for private sector involvement is a must in order to market
hydrogen technology products and achieve their industrialization. An endeavour reflecting
7
years of operation on the hydrogen energy front, this book is an opportunity to sit and look
back at our achievements in order to better gauge what is still ahead. More than a compila
-
tion of corporate statistics, demonstration projects and R&D programmes, it documents a
coherent vision supplemented by real-life implementations that are laying the foundations of
the first stages of a hydrogen inclusive economy.
UNIDO-ICHET Managing Director Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
Because our ecosystem will no longer be able to nurture the human spe
-
cies if the exploitation and consumption of fossil fuel sources continues
at its current rate, the gradual switch to clean energy resources has be
-
come a necessity. With an energy yield per weight unit triple that of fossil
fuels, hydrogen is the ideal energy carrier and storage medium and can
rightfully boast its zero carbon footprint when produced from renewable
resources.
Burnt in internal combustion engines, hydrogen can be converted into
thermal and kinetic energy. More importantly, it can also be turned directly into electricity
within fuel cells, those amazing electro-chemical devices that combine hydrogen with ambi
-
ent oxygen to produce electricity through a completely noise free process which releases
no more than pure water as a combustion product. Be it with internal combustion engines
or fuel cells, hydrogen applications can cover a wide range of needs, from transportation to
stationary systems through residential usage.
13
>>
Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to be the key technologies that will facilitate the
transition to a low carbon energy future in a similar way that oil and the internal combustion
engine displaced coal and the steam engine. Although hydrogen can be produced from
numerous primary energy sources, it is its production from renewables that renders it a
sustainable energy carrier. Along with biofuels, synthetic fuels and electricity, hydrogen is
foreseen to be one of the future energy carriers in transport and stationary applications. The
United States, the European Union, Canada and Japan have been investing heavily in the
development of hydrogen production, storage and use technologies including fuel cells, with
hydrogen playing a prominent role in their long term energy scenarios. Until recently how
-
ever, such efforts have been rare in the developing world, risking the opening of yet another
technology divide.
Towards renewable hydrogen
>> Introduction >>
Primary sources
Wind, sun and
biomass are some of
the renewable
primary energy
sources that could
be used in the
frame of a hydrogen
inclusive economy..
15
>>
14
>>
On 18
th
March 1974, a group of scientists and engineers, later to be known as the Hydrogen Romantics,
met at the “The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy” (THEME) conference and proposed the Hydrogen
Economy or Hydrogen Energy System as part of the solution addressing the interrelated global problems
of the depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental damage caused by their utilization. UNIDO, rec
-
ognizing the potential of hydrogen energy to better economic and environmental conditions, proposed
the establishment of an International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies and commissioned a
report on this issue to one of these Hydrogen Romantics: Prof. Nejat Veziroglu. This Centre was to pro
-
mote the conversion to a hydrogen inclusive economy by encouraging, coordinating and speeding-up
hydrogen energy related activities in the developing world. Candidate sites for the location of the Centre
were evaluated on the basis that they should be situated between the developed and developing coun
-
tries, be easily reachable and benefit from the support of an industrial nation. The city of Istanbul in
Turkey, located between the two continents of Europe and Asia and close to a third, Africa, fulfilled all
these requirements. As a result of discussions and negotiations, Turkish Government agreed to spon
-
sor and host this Centre and to commit $40M of initial funding. The Trust Fund Agreement establishing
the Centre was signed on 21
st
October 2003 by Director General of UNIDO, H. E. Carlos Magarinos,
and the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey, Dr. M. Hilmi Guler. Ratification of the
treaty, soon followed paving the way for the centre’s commencement with Dr. Veziroglu as its founding
director. When ICHET started operation
on 19
th
May 2004, some sixteen years
of behind-the-scenes lobbying, negotia
-
tion and diplomacy had finally come to
fruition. Dr. Veziroglu retired on April 31
st
2007, leaving Dr. Engin Türe in charge for
an interim period. Dr. Mustafa Hatipoglu
was then appointed Managing Director
of the Centre on 1
st
February 2008. The
vast majority of ICHET projects have
been completed under his direction.
Economic development
Since the establishment of its full hu
-
man resource and laboratory structure
in 2009, ICHET has been overtly active on all fronts of the hydrogen energy arena through its support
to R&D and by implementing demonstration projects. More than ever its role is not only to support,
demonstrate and promote viable hydrogen energy technologies with the aims of enhancing future eco
-
nomic development, particularly in emerging countries, but also to prevent the widening of the energy
and technology gap while skipping over the fossil fuel phase.
The birth and role of ICHET
>> Introduction >>
Dr. Hilmi Güler (left) and Mr. Carlos Magarinos (right) signing the ICHET Trust Fund Agreement
on 21
st
October 2003.
17
>>
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources or MENR (Turkish: Enerji ve
Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlıgı) is the government ministry office of the Republic
of Turkey responsible for energy and natural resources related affairs in
Turkey.cIts mission is to reduce Turkey’s external energy dependencies and
contribute to national welfare through efficient, effective, safe, timely and
environmentally friendly use of energy and natural resource.
Between 1990 and 2008 in Turkey, annual average rate of increase in primary energy demand was realized as 4,3
%.
Turkey has had the highest rate of energy demand increase of any other OECD countries over the past 10 years.
Similarly, since 2000, Turkey has been the second largest economy after China for having the highest rate of in
-
crease in electricity and gas demand. Projections show that this trend will continue in the medium run. According to
the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Taner Yıldız, in order to address this demand increase while making a
rational use of natural resources, “it is of great importance to [...] diversify energy production using new technologies
and increase the efficiency of the existing technologies, and implement policies and strategies which
intend to use alternative energy sources”.
>> Spotlight on: ICHET donors >>
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
is a specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in
Vienna, Austria. Its mandate is to promote and accelerate sustain
-
able industrial development in developing countries and economies
in transition, and work towards improving living conditions in the
world’s poorest countries by drawing on its combined global re
-
sources and expertise. In recent years, UNIDO has assumed an
enhanced role in the global development agenda by focusing its
activities on poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environ
-
mental sustainability. Energy is a prerequisite for poverty reduction.
Still, fundamental changes in the way societies produce and con
-
sume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development.
UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consump
-
tion and production. As a leading provider of services for improved
industrial energy efficiency and sustainability, UNIDO assists
developing countries and transition economies in imple
-
menting multilateral environmental agreements and
in simultaneously reaching their economic
and environmental goals.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey
UNIDO Director General
Kandeh Yumkella.
Turkish Minister of Energy and
Natural Resources Taner Yıldız.
17
>>
Courtesy of MENR
Courtesy of UNIDO
Caption
headline
Torporrunt. Ducil
invero de porenis
ma voluptam aut
que nonessuntis
doluptate
nonsequidis
soluptatus, opta
dipsust, cusae
natecte sanditisit
eos vollia sam venihit
aturiscient.
19
>>
Hydrogen technologies already exist. ICHET is playing a crucial
role in promoting them and ensuring that hydrogen finds its
place in the UN energy vision, strategy and implementation
plans. This promotion is best achieved through demonstrations
of viable technologies with the aim not only of drawing attention
but also to gain experience, identify areas for improvement and
solve the remaining engineering and logistical problems.
Fuel cell
based forklifts
p.20-21
Implementing
hydrogen islands
p.26-29
Uninterruptible
power systems
p.22-23
The Ecocaravan
hits the road
p.30-33
Autorickshaws
in New-Delhi
p.24-25
Around the
Golden Horn
p.34-41
Projects
21
>>
A hydrogen fuel cell forklift prototype was realized in 2007 with a local manufacturer. The concept
will be replicated at three sites in Europe for a total of 10 vehicles and their refuelling stations.
H
2
Ecolift
Fitted with a 2
x
4
kW
engine, the H
2
Ecolift
has a lifting capacity
of up to 1500
kg.
Forklift vehicles are one of the
mainstays of modern industries
and businesses and are found
anywhere heavy items need to
be moved from one place to an
-
other. Commonly, electric motors
powered by lead acid batteries
provide locomotion and lift, but al
-
though lead acid batteries are well
established technologies, many
problems are still inherent in their
use.
A fully operational system
In particular, batteries require con
-
siderable times for charging before
use, are prone to voltage reduc
-
tions as charge decreases and
suffer long change over times. In
contrast, systems in which batter
-
ies are replaced by modern fuel
cell packs exhibit none of these
drawbacks and are being touted
as serious competitors to tradi
-
tional forklifts.
In 2007, ICHET identified fork
-
lifts as a key area and developed,
in collaboration with its partner
Çumitas, a fully operational system
that has been used at a num
-
ber of test sites in Turkey. Taking
this concept a stage further in
2010, ICHET started a collabora
-
tion with the SHEL project of the
European commission Fuel Cells
and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking
to build a fleet of forklifts and op
-
erate them in locations throughout
Europe.
Fuel cell powered forklifts
>> Projects >>
Turkey, Spain and UK
“Sustainable Hydrogen
Evaluation in Logistics”
(SHEL) project will be
implementing 10 forklifts
and their refuelling
stations in 3 sites located
in Turkey, Spain and UK.
Its main aim is to evaluate
market readiness.
G. D.
23
>>
IDO
The control room,
turnstyles and voice
announcement
system of Istanbul
Sea Bus company
(IDO) headquarters
are protected by a
hydrogen fuel cell
uninterruptible
power unit.
Following the succesful installation of a hydrogen uninterruptible power system in Istanbul,
ICHET is now participating in a EU project aiming at installing 19 such systems throughout Europe.
Uninterruptible power systems
(UPS) have typically relied on die
-
sel generators or batteries for
backup energy storage. Recent
advances in hydrogen fuel cell
technologies, however, have pro
-
vided an environmentally friendly
solution. ICHET has inaugurated
on 2
nd
August 2009 the installation
of such a PEM hydrogen fuel cell
based UPS system in the Yenikapı
pier headquarter offices of Istanbul
Sea Bus company (IDO), thus al
-
lowing the demonstration of this
technology to millions of commut
-
ers every year.
ICHET is also project partner of the
FITUP project. Conceived within
the framework of the European
commission Fuel Cells and
Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, this
project aims at installing a total of
19 fuel cell systems as UPS/back
-
up power sources in selected sites
across Europe by the end of 2013.
Market entry
Exemple real-world customers have
been selected from the telecom
-
munications and hotel industries.
They will utilize the fuel cell-based
systems at their sites and employ
power consumption levels ranging
between 1 and 10
kW. These units
will demonstrate a level of technical
performance (start-up time, reli
-
ability, durability, number of cycles)
that qualifies them for market entry,
thereby accelerating the commer
-
cialization of this technology in
Turkey, Europe and elsewhere.
Fuel cell UPS installations
>> Projects >>
UPS projects facts
5
kW.
The power consumption
of the Yenikapı UPS
system.
Turkey Vodafone Headquarters.
One of the 19 sites, along
with Swisscom and
Lucerne cantonal police,
to be equipped by a UPS
in the frame of FITUP.
Courtesy of IDO
25
>>
Three wheeled vehicles are a very
popular mode of transport in many
Asian metropolises. By converting
them to run on hydrogen, a drastic
reduction in the levels of air pol
-
lutants they cause in urban areas
can be achieved. Local produc
-
tion of hydrogen from indigenous
renewable energy sources also
has the potential to reduce overall
greenhouse gas emissions as well
as lessen dependence on import
-
ed fossil fuels.
To this end, the implementation
of a demonstration fleet of 15
hydrogen internal combustion
engine propelled autorickshaws
was initiated in March 2009 in
India. The fleet is to be used to
carry passengers and goods in
New Delhi at the Pragati Maidan
exhibition grounds, the largest
of the country, and is being ser
-
viced by a refuelling station built
on the site as part of the project.
This project has been realized by
a consortium of local and interna
-
tional partners including ICHET,
IIT Delhi, Mahindra & Mahindra,
Air Products and UNIDO India. It
also benefited from the support of
ITPO and of the Indian Ministry of
New and Renewable Energies.
Cost reduction
A series of new energy policy
measures have recently been tak
-
en by India which may lead to the
country playing a significant role
in the development of hydrogen
energy technologies and contrib
-
ute to the creation of a real market
through mass production and re
-
duced costs.
Hydrogen autorickshaws can efficiently address the pollution iss
ues of many Asian metropolises.
As part of its new energy policies, India is currently implementing a demonstration fleet.
Hy-Alpha
prototype
Mathew Abraham,
from Mahindra &
Mahindra, posing
next to the Hy-
Alpha hydrogen
autorickshaw
prototype.
India goes for hydrogen
30,000
The number of PEM fuel
cell units ordered by India
Telecoms in May 2008.
The single largest fuel cell
supply contract to date.
2020 GIFT and GIP
Indian government
hydrogen inclusive
initiatives for transport
and stationary
applications.
Hydrogen for the masses
>> Projects >>
29
>>
28
>>
sources when converting gener
-
ated electricity into hydrogen.
The system will be providing elec
-
tricity back to the building at times
of low sunlight and wind condi
-
tions through the genset and fuel
cells.
In the Cook Islands
A number of technological devel
-
opment tests will be performed
both to demonstrate the practical
nature of the system and provide
training activities to engineers from
the developing world.
Profiting from this experience and
with financing from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF), ICHET
is realizing a similar project on
Aitutaki, an island of the Cook
Islands in the South Pacific. In
this case, a 200
kW photovoltaic
system is to be connected to the
900
kW peak autonomous island
grid. To avoid possible grid in
-
stability, any excess solar power
will be converted to hydrogen by
a 50
kW electrolyser and, after
compression, stored for further us
-
age by fuel cells. To explore and
promote concepts of hydrogen
energy for remote island com
-
munities, ICHET is leading a new
Annex of the International Energy
Agency Hydrogen Implementing
Agreement. The “Distributed and
Community Hydrogen” annex will
investigate the technical, economic
and social strengths and weak
-
nesses of such systems in existing
installations around the globe.
Island communities can greatly benefit from the usage of clean, renewabl
e energy sources.
ICHET is realizing such a project
on Bozcaada island in the Aegean
sea. It consists of 20
kW of pho
-
tovoltaic panels, a 30
kW wind
turbine, a 50
kW – 10
Nm
3
/hour
capacity electrolyser, hydrogen
storage for 60
kg of hydrogen, a
35
kW hydrogen gen-set and a
25
kW PEM fuel cell. The com
-
plete system will be installed in
the spring of 2011 in a plot at the
Governor’s building. Both the local
Governor and Mayor of Bozcaada
have welcomed the opportunity to
erect the system on the island.
Hydrogen will be produced from
electricity generated by the PV
panels and wind turbine. A spe
-
cial electrolyser has been chosen
that can accommodate the rapid
and stochastic power changes in
electrical output typical of such
H
2
system on
Bozcaada island
The renewable
hydrogen facility
installed by ICHET
on Bozcaada Island
Governorship site
consists of a
30
kW wind turbine,
a 20
kW array of
photovoltaic cells
and a 25
kW PEM
fuel cell.
>> Hydrogen islands
>>
>> Projects >>
31
>>
Using renewable energies in mo
-
bile houses is a reality today, but
associating renewable energies
with hydrogen, and efficiently us
-
ing renewable energies is still much
undeveloped. In many cases, re
-
newable energies can replace
those from traditional sources, but
the main constraint is how these
energies can be stored. Hydrogen
is a viable solution for storing sur
-
plus energy for later use.
Based on the idea of bringing to
-
gether these different concepts to
develop a self-sustainable mobile
dwelling, the Ecocaravan is a RV
type vehicle, a self-sustained liv
-
ing space complete with all the
modern facilities. It is an evolution
of the Mobile Renewable House
ICHET project.
One week autonomy
Fitted with a small wind turbine
and an array of photovoltaic cells,
the Ecocaravan is able to pro
-
duce its own electricity from wind
and solar energy or, in absence
thereof, from the stored hydrogen
obtained through electrolysis dur
-
ing excess electricity production.
Its mobility, reactivity and flexibility
are its distinctive hallmark: an au
-
tonomous self propelled living unit
which can rely on its hydrogen
stock for approximately one week
of normal usage and is therefore
suitable for operation in remote
areas or in emergency relief con
-
ditions.
The Ecocaravan is an experimental RV type vehicle harnessing the power of wind and sun within
a comprehensive hydrogen production, storage and usage system for increased autonomy.
In stationary
mode
When stationary, the
Ecocaravan deploys
its wind turbine and
sun tracking PV cells
in order to recharge
its energy reserves.
The Ecocaravan hits the road
>> Projects >>
Ecocaravan figures
1710
W
Sun tracking PV panels
1000
W
Retractible wind turbine
1200
W
PEM fuel cell
5000
L - 15000
Wh
Metal hydride hydrogen
storage
35
>>
Transport
routes
A number of
transport routes
ensuring high visibility
for the project are
currently being
studied by Istanbul
municipality.
Refuelling station
(Eyüp)
Bus route
Beşiktaş
Edirnekapı
A flooded prehistoric estuary
used as a natural harbour under
the Bizantine Empire, the Golden
Horn later became a major ship
-
yard location during the Ottoman
empire. Today the Golden Horn is
once again becoming the focus of
attentions, not only because of the
countless historical sites and lei
-
sure sites that surround it, but also
because it is to be the heart of a
threefold hydrogen public trans
-
portation project conducted jointly
by Istanbul Municipality and the
International Centre for Hydrogen
Energy Technologies.
The project consists of the de
-
velopment of a hybrid bus, of a
passenger ship and of a hydro
-
gen filling station. The bus and the
passenger ship will be integrated
into the Istanbul public transpor
-
tation network once the hydrogen
filling station required for their op
-
eration is up and running.
A World Premiere
Hydrogen energy transportation
technologies by themselves are
indeed useless if not appropriate
-
ly supplemented with hydrogen
fuelling infrastructures. By bringing
together all these complementary
aspects of hydrogen transpor
-
tation (land transportation, sea
transportation, refuelling), the
Golden Horn project will be a
milestone in the development of
hydrogen related transportation
systems in Turkey.
The Golden Horn filling station will
be the first hydrogen filling station
in Turkey, and a world first as a hy
-
drogen facility supplying both sea
and land transportation vehicles.
ICHET and Istanbul Municipality are working for the implementation of a series of high visibility
hydrogen energy public transportation projects centred on a refuelling facility in the Golden Horn.
Commuting in Istanbul
Istanbul Municipality
operates 2768 buses
and 44 ships. 2.5 million
privately owned cars are
commuting every day
in Istanbul. More than
2
millions Istanbulites
commute in buses and
ships every day.
Hydrogen in the Golden Horn
!
>> Projects >>
Ship routes
37
>>
A hydrogen filling station located
on the Golden Horn banks is be
-
ing developed in partnership with
Istanbul Greater City Municipality.
Upon completetion in May 2012,
it will be used as a production,
storage and refuelling facility with
the capability of dispensing up to
65
kg of hydrogen gas per day to
the buses and ships which are
currently being worked on as part
of the Golden Horn project.
Hydrogen Highway
The location of the filling station
is specifically chosen in order to
supply both buses and ships at
a single lo
-
cation. It
will be in
-
strumental in supporting
Turkey’s automotive sector’s
endeavours towards the develop
-
ment of clean energy vehicles by
providing them real life test op
-
portunities for hydrogen powered
vehicles. The Golden Horn fuelling
station is planned to be the first
step of an upcoming “hydrogen
corridor”.
While hydrogen systems are often
experimented in small size vehi
-
cles such as cars and SUVs, there
are considerably fewer hydrogen
powered buses in operation.
The second part of the Golden
Horn project consists in the devel
-
opment of a hybrid bus propelled
by a hydrogen internal combus
-
tion engine and a battery pack
of 140
kW combined power. Its
design has benefitted consider
-
ably from local manufacturers’
expertise in bus construction and
development and local conditions.
Environmentally friendly
The hybrid bus will not only reduce
emissions under city traffic condi
-
tions, but also to allow savings on
fuel consumption. This project will
gain from the high visibility of a bus
route passing through historical
sites in Western Istanbul. The city
will be an important test ground
for the running of the bus in con
-
gested traffic and ICHET will be
collecting precious technical data
whilst conducting the first opera
-
tional phase.
>> Projects >>
Istanbul tour on board a hybrid hydrogen bus
A fuelling station for land and sea transportation
>> Golden Horn projects
>>
The Istanbul Golden Horn project
includes the development of a
hydrogen powered ship with, as
the main stakeholders, Istanbul
Municipality and its technology
development company Belbim.
Externally funded, this passenger
boat project is being realized with
the support of ICHET, which pro
-
vides its technical expertise and
fuel cell testing facilities.
Propelled by an electric motor
and powered by a 48
kW fuel cell
stack, this vessel will be carry
-
ing up to 50 passengers around
the Golden Horn. As is the case
with the hybrid bus project, the
operation of the ship will be the
opportunity to collect technical
data in order to precisely assess
the benefits of the system.
The hydrogen powered ship pro
-
ject is also part of a larger ICHET
scheme aiming at transferring hy
-
drogen related expertise to third
parties.
Start of operation by end 2011
Smaller-sized similar hydrogen fuel
cell boats are being developed in
projects ran in five Turkish univer
-
sities with support from ICHET,
which is donating the fuel cell
and necessary hydrogen related
parts. The university teams are
already benefiting from ICHET
training and expertise in hy
-
drogen energy systems
as well as from ICHET’s
fuel cell test facilities in
order to develop their
vessels, whose op
-
eration is planned
to take place in the
Golden Horn and in selected in
shore waters. The boats are
expected to be completed
and start operation by the
end of 2011.
On the Golden Horn in hydrogen powered boats
39
>>
38
>>
>> Golden Horn projects
>>
Hybrid bus
The 90 kW HICE based
hybrid bus prototype
will be based on the
existing “Cobra” bus
model developed by
the Turkish company
Güleryüz.
Passenger ship
A hydrogen fuel cell
powered 50-passenger
vessel designed together
with Istanbul Municipal
Data Processing
Corporation is to be
launched in 2012.
Caption
headline
Torporrunt. Ducil
invero de porenis
ma voluptam aut
que nonessuntis
doluptate
nonsequidis
soluptatus, opta
dipsust, cusae
natecte sanditisit
eos vollia sam venihit
aturiscient.
43
>>
While the principles and blueprints of the hydrogen energy
technology basics have by now become widely available, the
full scale implementation of a hydrogen inclusive economy still
requires further applied R&D effort, especially in countries aiming
at developing their own capabilities. ICHET is supporting such
efforts through the financing of selected consortia based research
programmes.
Local fuel cell
production
p.
44-45
House type
cogeneration
p.
46-47
Hydrogen and
hythane engines
p.
48-49
Applied R&D
A
fuel cell
is an
electrochemi
-
cal cell
that
converts
chemical
energy
from a fuel into
electric
energy. Its principle was discov
-
ered by German scientist
Christian
Friedrich Schönbein
in 1838.
Fuel cells are already used as pow
-
er sources in remote locations,
such as spacecrafts (Apollo, Space
Shuttle), remote weather stations,
large parks, rural locations, and in
certain military applications. A fuel
cell system running on hydrogen
can be compact and lightweight,
and has no major moving parts,
hence achieving a theoretical reli
-
ability close to 100%.
Wherever the transition to a hydro
-
gen economy takes place, local
fuel cell manufacturing will be a
major asset. As part of its R&D
support activities, ICHET is fund
-
ing such project in Turkey.
$500,000 funding
The goal of the project is to design
and industrialize a 3
kW PEM fuel
cell, the membrane electrode as
-
sembly and plates of which have
to be manufactured in Turkey.
The fuel cell has to withstand over
1000 hours of system operation.
Following a successful project
proposal, a consortium coordinat
-
ed by the Middle-East Technical
University in Ankara will ben
-
efit from $
500,000 funding from
ICHET.
Domestic fuel cell production capabilities are a definite asset
for countries willing to perform the
switch towards a hydrogen inclusive system. A related R&D project is currently underway in Turkey.
PEM
fuel cell
In the hydrogen–
oxygen
proton
exchange
membrane fuel
cell